Ted and land-disposed wastes from food animals for extended periods of time—between two and 12 months for bacteria and between three and six months for viruses. [emphasis mine] the amount of untreated waste allowed to fester in cafos globally is stunning. The volume of animal wastes is significant, reflecting the considerable expansion of food animal production globally. generic viagra for sale in usabuy cheap viagra no prescriptionmedicaresupplementspecialists.com/pfz-100-mg-generic-viagra-np/viagra without a doctor prescriptioncheap viagrahttp://classicmotocrossimages.com/mbs-viagra-cheap-pills-ji/buy viagrabuy viagraviagra onlinecheap viagra In the u. S. , it is estimated that 238,000 cafos produce 314 million metric tons of waste per year, which is centred times as much biosolids produced by treating human wastewater. Global estimates suggest that cxl million metric tons of poultry litter and 460 million metric tons of swinewaste were produced in 2003, based on data from the food and agriculture organization. [emphasis added. ] and of course, this vast amount of manure is highly concentrated geographically. For example, the bulk of pork consumed in the united states comes from a handful of counties in iowa and north carolina. In mexico, the perote region of vera cruz carries the burden of intensive hog production. The relatively few workers who staff these industrial farms, as well as the residents who live nearby, are vulnerable to the pathogens — and can carry them to far-flung populations. Workers involved in removing the wastes from animal houses, transporting wastes, and spreading wastes on land are especially at risk of exposure to pathogens through inhalation, dermal contact, and hand-to-mouth transfers. Regulations for protecting those workers tend to be … not so strict. In the u. S. , as in much of the world, there is little regulation of occupational conditions or worker exposures in most high-density animal houses. The conditions of work … provide many opportunities for both worker infection and transfer to others in the community. With the exception of concerns about disposal of dead chickens during an outbreak, there has been minimal attention to animal-human interactions associated with the operation and management of broiler poultry houses. Many workers are provided little or no protective clothing or pportunities for personal hygiene or decontamination on-site. Our studies of poultry house workers in maryland indicate that workers take their clothes home for washing. Thus, it is not surprising that increased risks of pathogen exposure and infections, both bacterial and viral, have been reported among farmers, their families, and farm workers a.